Glass is gotten by fusing quartz (primarily composed of SiO2) and other carbonates and oxides. To make the glass is also necessary to add a percentage of recycled glass from 20 to 40%.
Glass is one of the most important things to realize a good window. Covering the 80% of the window' surface, its insulating power is really decisive for the living comfort and for energy saving.
Glass has two important properties which determine its quality:
There are different types of glass:
Do you want to know any more information about this irreplaceable and enchanting material? You have just to continue reading!
According to Pliny the Elder, Phoenician traders were the first to stumble upon glass manufacturing techniques at the site of the Belus River.
The Phoenician merchants were bringing the soda carbonate from their land to the West, where people were used it to make dyeing, wash fabrics and to mummify bodies.
The tradition is that one cold night, these merchants had stayed at rest on a beach and to make a fire they had used loaves of soda. Without know it, they have created the glass, by mixing the sand of the shore, the silice and fire.
The most ancient glass known objects are dated at XXIII century BC and are blue blocks which were fused to probably get little items. The most ancient glass containers have been recovered in Mesopotamia and in Egypt and are dated back at 1500 BC.
Also the Romans were using glass and they added natron at the first materials. Natron was a mixture of vegetal (ashes of salicornia) or mineral origin. During Medieval age, components as potassium carbonate, gotten from the ashes of ferns or wooded plants, were added to sand and soda.We can well saying that the Roman glass was a sodium glass, while the Medieval one was almost all potassium glass.
So glass was composed by:
In the ancient era, the last one component was taken from sand and especially from shells. Romans, really, didn’t know that calcium was so important: they put it just using sand which was very rich in it.
The glass could be colored by oxides of iron and copper. One of the most loved color was cobalt blue which was gotten with colored sands.
As today, Romans were using recycled glass to make their items: this is because the temperature of fusion becomes lowered. The cause of the difficulty and rarity to find Roman objects of glass isn't, how we can think, the fragility of this material; but its continuous recycling.
One of the cause of the great diffusion of glass in Rome, it's its cheaper cost regard to metal objects that only richer people could buy. Petronius, a Roman writer, has left us a testimony about glass, praising it for the easy way necessary to clean it and for its particular: it wouldn't take the taste of food, while with using soapstone objects would happen.
Roman glass production developed from Hellenistic technical traditions, initially concentrating on the production of intensely colored cast glass vessels. However, during the 1st century CE the industry underwent rapid technical growth that saw the introduction of glass blowing and the dominance of colorless or "aqua" glasses.We can say that in the 1st century CE all the working techniques were known and used. For example, to make a cameo, Romans were joining two sheets of glass (one blue and one other white) and then they were working it to obtain the desiderate effect.In the IV century CE, glass was already incising with Christian subjects.
The glass still has a main role in the contemporary era both for its characteristics both for the great beauty that some glassmakers can obtain from it.
Working with top industries as Henry Glass, Casali, Cristalvetro, Valvetri, Gidea andMetodho, also the Daniele Lanzoni Srl. gives its contribution to diffuse the beauty of the glass and to carry on this millenary history.